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  Milk Processing

Milk is as ancient as mankind itself, as it is the substance created to feed the mammalian infant. Many centuries ago, perhaps as early as 6000-8000 BC, ancient man learned to domesticate species of animals for the provision of milk to be consumed by them. These included cows (genus Bos), buffaloes, sheep, goats, and camels, all of which are still used in various parts of the world for the production of milk for human consumption.

Fermented products such as cheeses were discovered by accident, but their history has also been documented for many centuries, as has the production of concentrated milks, butter, and even ice cream. Technological advances have only come about very recently in the history of milk consumption, and our generations will be the ones credited for having turned milk processing from an art to a science. The availability and distribution of milk and milk products today in the modern world is a blend of the centuries old knowledge of traditional milk products with the application of modern science and technology.

The role of milk in the traditional diet has varied greatly in different regions of the world. The tropical countries have not been traditional milk consumers, whereas the more northern regions of the world, Europe (especially Scandinavia) and North America, have traditionally consumed far more milk and milk products in their diet. In tropical countries where high temperatures and lack of refrigeration has led to the inability to produce and store fresh milk, milk has traditionally been preserved through means other than refrigeration, including immediate consumption of warm milk after milking, by boiling milk, or by conversion into more stable products such as fermented milks.

Process Description

Fundamanetals of Milk Processing

The raw material is milk as supplied by livestock owners/milk producers. Milk processing (the dairy industry) is characterized by a wide variety of different products. In order to operate profitably and efficiently, a high degree of automation can often be en¬countered throughout the industry; from raw milk delivery through to packing of the finished products.

Milk processing

Milk is collected from various collection units. Upon arrival, milk is tested for a variety of things, including texture, smell, composition and hygeienic quality. Milk is then cooled and stored until it can be processed.

Milk is decontaminated using one of a number of heat treatment, including thermisation, pasteurization, and sterilization. Milk can be processed into standardized whole, semi-skimmed or skimmed milk. The fat content in whole milk and semi-skimmed is standardized by separating the milk into skim and cream, and then blending the skim and cream together in specified proportions until the desired composition is achieved. Skim milk results when whole milk is introduced into a centrifugal separator which separates the light fatty phase from the denser non-fat phase. The milk is then homogenized, reducing the size of fat globules before cooling and packaging.

Loss Exposure

The critical factor here is the use of combustible insulation materials. Sandwich panels, often used as facades or for dividing rooms as well as for ceiling elements. These panels consist of metal panels (mostly aluminium) between which the insulation material is 10Ce Combustible insulation materials such as polystyrene or polyurethane are used to a large extent for cost reasons. Alternative, non-combustible materials: foam glass, mineral or rock wool.

Room-dividing panel elements which are not made of metal but of polyurethane or polyethylene are also used due to hygiene requirements. This contributes to a further increase the fire load.

With a roof structure made of trapezoidal corrugated sheeting with polystyrene insulation, combustible gases are emitted in the event of a fire due to an increase in the temperature of the polystyrene. These gases spread and propagate along the crimp flanges of the trapezoidal corrugated sheeting. Due to the hot trapezoidal sheeting and flames, the gases can ignite over a large area.

Spray drying

The spray drying process poses the risk of explosion of the dried milk powder. The main ignition source is the growing deposits of moist milk powder in the upper section of the spray tower. On account of a biological reaction (Maillard), the deposits can heat up of on their own accord through to incandescence. If the pocket of embers drops down, it will burst apart, thus coming in contact with already dried and agitated powder - resulting in an explosion.

Risk Management

Risk is one of the most frequently used terms in the economic literature and many different definitions and categories are used. This includes, for example, distinctions between corporate risks and personal risks. Other classifications differentiate between pure and speculative risk concepts or between objective and subjective risks. In the context of this study, risk is defined as the uncertainty of decision-makers with regard to future events that is reflected in incomplete information and can result in economic losses or deviations from a priori fixed target values. The sources of internal risks, like production, equipment and financial risks, are located primarily within the farm and, therefore, can often be managed through internal measures, such as improved hygiene or financial management. External risks, which include market and political risks, are rooted in a farm's environment so that the management has little if any control over the incident rates of these risks identification, assessment, management and control of risks Risk avoidance includes measures that reduce a farm's exposure to internal or external risks. Avoidance of a risk often requires stopping certain entrepreneurial activities. Abandoning dairy production, for instance, allows a farm to avoid risks associated with milk production]; at the same time, however, it means that the farm loses the (income) opportunities associated with milk production. Therefore, risk avoidance is a risk management strategy that can only be applied selectively. The risk reduction strategy consists of measures that reduce incident rates, or potential damages or losses. This category includes such diverse measures as the use of technical aids, such as fire alarm systems, and the diversification of farm activities in order to improve the mixture of risks a farm is exposed to. Since risk reduction does not imply a complete stoppage of any economic activities, this strategy can be used in a much more flexible way than the risk avoidance strategy.

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