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  Textile Mills

The textile industry is a conversion process in which raw material in the form of cotton or synthetic staple fibre is converted into yard and then woven into cloth. The former process of structural conversion of fibre into yarn is called as spinning and the latter, the conversion of yarn into cloth is known as weaving. After weaving the cloth is processed with various chemicals and dyes to obtain the marketable product.

This major group includes establishments engaged in performing any of the following operations:

(1) preparation of fiber and subsequent manufacturing of yarn, thread, braids, twine, and cordage;

(2) manufacturing broadwoven fabrics, narrow woven fabrics, knit fabrics, and carpets and rugs from yarn;

(3) dyeing and finishing fiber, yarn, fabrics, and knit apparel;

(4) coating, waterproofing, or otherwise treating fabrics;

(5) the integrated manufacture of knit apparel and other finished articles from yarn; and

(6) the manufacture of felt goods, lace goods, nonwoven fabrics, and miscellaneous textiles.

This classification makes no distinction between the two types of organizations which operate in the textile industry:

(1) the integrated mill which purchases materials, produces textiles and related articles within the establishment, and sells the finished products; and

(2) the contract or commission mill which processes materials owned by others. Converters or other nonmanufacturing establishments which assign materials to contract mills for processing, other than knitting, are classified in nonmanufacturing industries; establishments which assign yarns to outside contractors or commission knitters for the production of knit products are classified in industry group.

Risk Management

An automatic fire alarm system conforming to IS: 2189-1988 "Code of practice for selection, installation and maintenance of automatic fire detection and alarm system" would be advantageous for cotton godowns.

Portable fire extinguishers provided in many mills were found to be non-standard ones. Mill management should purchase only ISI marked extinguishers.

Buckets and portable fire extinguishers conforming to IS: 2190-1992 "Selection, installation and maintenance of first-aid fire extinguishers Code of practice" should be provided at suitable locations in the vicinity of godowns.

Installation of fire hydrant system as per TAC norms is recommended.

For extinguishment of flash fires involving cotton in process, DCP type extinguishers backed up with low velocity water spray system are more effective.

Installation of a sprinkler system would be even better. Automatic sprinklers are recommended for all processes and high value storage areas. An automatic fire detection and alarm system supported by a well-designed hydrant system and a trained fire-fighting squad can be considered as alternative to the sprinkler system. In most places, a smoke detector would be appropriate for fire detection.

Wherever neither hydrant or sprinkler system is available, a water tank of 50,000 litres will be quite useful for the public fire brigade.

It is possible for fire to spread from Blow Room to Carding section through chutes in the pneumatic cotton conveying system. CO2 injection and flow diversion arrangements in the chute preclude this possibility. .

The magnetic separators or electronic metal detectors provided in the blow room machinery should be checked periodically for their efficient functioning.

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